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This is the Assignments Sandbox for my HSC (Higher School Certificate) Stuff for 2006/2007.

Warning: No Guarantee Facts are correct... Also do not plagiarize, A teacher could easily Google sections and find this page...


Premim Bio Drawing Australian Plant Species

Completely Drawn Assignemnt 56/65

Field Study Prelim 2006

22/30 Harris Creek

9th September 2006


The Aim of this study is to observe and document the abiotic and biotic features of a local ecosystem. The area chosen to be studied is a section of Harris Creek adjoining the parking lot of Holsworthy Railway station to the east, and the suburb of Wattle Grove to the west. Harris Creek flows north and runs into the Georges River.

Aerial Maps


Abiotic Features: Aspect: Using the compass, different locations within the study area were classified as exposed or sheltered depending on generally how much vegetation was in the area and if he wind was felt.

Slope: The Angle of the Slope was estimated by pacing at 1 meter intervals and then measuring how high the hill rose underneath.

Exposure:The strength of the wind was estimated observing how much it disturbed the leaves on the trees.

Temperature: The temperature was measured using a thermometer, which was immersed into the water sample and pushed into the ground to measure the temperature of the soil.

pH: The Ph was measured with universal indicator strips which were put into contact with the sample then compared its colour to its key.

Biotic Features: Abundance: The abundance of the plant and animal species was found by using random 1x1 meter quadrants. The quadrants were placed randomly, five on each side of the creek and the number of the species present within the quadrant was counted and recorded.

Distribution: The distribution of plant species was found by selecting a transect and recording all the plant species found along the transect.

Interactions between Species: The Interactions between species was found by observing the area and recording any interactions seen.

Plan Sketch of Study Area


Aspect: Location Exposed or Sheltered Direction Area Faces Eastern Side Exposed West Creek Sheltered North/South Station Side Exposed East

Slope Location Slope Station Side 50 Eastern Side 110

Exposure Location Wind Level

  • Top of Hill Medium

Eastern Level Light Wind Creek Still Station Side Light Wind Scale: High: Branches moving in the wind, grass rolling, strongly felt. Medium: Some movement in leaves, felt. Light: Felt only lightly. Still: No movement, no feeling of wind

  • = for comparison; an area 25m to the east of the eastern boundary (inside Wattle Grove) of the study area at the top of a hill.

Temperature Sample Temperature Creek 230c Soil 260c

pH Sample pH Creek 5 Soil 4

Plants and Animals Name Location Relative Abundance Trophic Interactions Golden Wattle Acacia pycnantha Along the creek and scattered around the slopes High Producer Crimson Bottlebrush Callistemon citrinus Occasional Scattered Low Producer Gum Tree Along the Creek Very Low (6 individuals in the survey area) Producer She-Oak/Bull Oak Casuarina equisetifolia Along the Creek and in the wooded area Medium Producer Heath-leaved Banksia Banksia ericifolia Towards the South East of the Study Area Medium Producer

Grevillea banksii South East and South Western wooded areas Medium Producer Honeyeater Medium Herbivore

Human Interactions:

The section of Harris Creek in the study area is surrounded from the east and west by urban environments, and its nature being situated between a train station and a residential area means human traffic traversing the study area by the pathway is high. Direct interactions include the dumping of rubbish into the creek, which is full of plastic bottles and bags under the footbridge; further south the amount of rubbish declines, but the creek is frequently a brownish, red colour after rainstorms, indicating there may be an erosion problem up creek, which can effect the aquatic organisms present in the creek. Another direct human interaction is the fire trail, that is also used for maintenance of the gas line that cuts across the study area. The path above the gas line is kept moved to aid workers, and the where the line cuts the creek, the trees that line that section have been removed.


 Quadrants 1-5 for both the Golden wattle and the Honeyeaters were on the eastrn side of the creek, while quadrants 6-10 were on the western or station side of the creek.

Quadrant Number of Golden Wattles 1 2 2 5 3 3 4 4 5 3 6 2 7 1 8 2 9 3 10 4 Total 29 Average Per meter square = 2.9 Area of the study area 25m x 50m = 1250 Abundance in Study Area = 3625 individuals

Quadrant Number of Honeyeatres 1 0 2 1 3 0 4 1 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 9 0 10 0 Total 2 Average Per meter square = 0.2 Area of the study area 25m x 50m = 1250 Abundance in Study Area = 250 individuals


Plan Sketch of the Transect:

Profile Sketch of the Transect:

Adaptations for Environment:

Golden Wattle

The golden wattle has adapted to the Australian environment, being able to regenerate quickly after fires and it is fairly drought resistant.


Honeyeaters have long tongues to lap up nectar from flowers, but are unable to hover, so they fly from perch to perch to drink the nectar.


The population estimates made using the quadrant method seem to be too high for the study area, and the observations of animals was also a challenge, as they were in flight constantly, I counted them as in a quadrant if they were in visual distance when I was recording the number of Wattles in the quadrants.

Another difficulty was acquiring the pH level of the soil using the indicator strips, as the soil sample was dry, and the indicator strips are designed for liquids, also the scale of the strips is in whole numbers so the results may be imprecise.


A Field study of the Abiotic and biotic features of the Local System of Harris Creek was accomplished.











Chemistry Copper Seperation Assignment Prelim 2006


Year 11 Chemistry Research Assignment

The Chemical Earth

The Mining and extraction of Copper from the lithosphere involves many processes to extract pure copper from its many mineral compounds. First the physical methods of obtaining the copper ore, then using coppers chemical properties to concentrate of copper compounds and to remove impurities and then the final refining into pure copper metal and its uses, applications and its advancement to science, chemistry and society will be discussed here.

Modern Copper extraction always starts with mining the copper ores from the ground by either underground mining or open pit mining[1]. Underground mining involves tunneling underground, to extract the ore; vertical shafts are dug into the ground until they reach an ore deposit then horizontal shafts are dug into the ore body[1][[1][3].

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Chino_copper_mine.jpg (Licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License)

Once the ore has been mined out of the ground, the ore is then ground up and crushed into a fine powder then physically concentrated by a process called froth flotation[1][[4]. The grunge falls to the bottom of the water bath[1][4][5] is then collected and may be processed to remove further useful materials or heaped in piles near the mine[6].

From http://www.mcq.org/roc/en/exploitation/exploitation_3_1_3.html

The next step in extracting copper is called the Roasting stage, here the copper concentrate is oxidized at 500-700 degrees centigrade to convert some of the Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) into Copper and Iron Oxide and Sulphur Dioxide, the product now called calcine is sent on to be further processed[1][4] [6].

The Calcine is smelted in a furnace at 1200 degrees mixed with silica and limestone, the silica reacts with the iron and sulphur to from a slag which floats on top of the purer matte[1][4] [6][7]. The slag is skimmed off the top of the furnace and is either discarded, processed for other metals or recycled as railroad ballast or sandblasting grit[6][8].

To further remove iron and sulfur impurities hot air is blown through the liquid matte, the Iron Sulfate is converted to slag and the Copper sulfate is reduced into pure copper and sulfur dioxide[1][4] [6]. The result of this stage is blister copper, as the sulfur dioxide gas creates bubbles throughout the structure of the copper mass[1], the copper now 99% pure is only needs to go through one final purification stage, depending on its use.

The Last stage, Electrorefining the blister copper is melted into anodes and immersed in to a copper sulphate and sulfuric acid electrolyte[1] [9], with a pure copper cathode, when a current is passed through the anode to the cathode; the copper dissolves into the electrolyte off the anode and are re-deposited onto the cathode[[1][9]. The resultant product is 99.99% pure copper, the cathodes are then lifted out of the electrolysis cell and are then sold.

With many of the wastes and by-products encountered during the copper refining process, the metals are extracted from the Anode sludge[4] [6]. The Sulphur dioxide gas is captured and turned into Sulphuric acid and either sold or reused in the electrorefining process[6].

[11], means its it used as heatsinks in computers, radiations in air conditioners, cars and in refrigerators, and in cookware to ensure even heating of food[10]. Its conducts electricity well and is used in electronics[11], as wires in generators and motors, computers, electromagnets, televisions, as well as in commutation used in telephones and electrical transmission[10]. Copper is malleable and is used in piping and in statues, as it can be easily deformed into specific shapes. Mixed with other metals into alloys, it is used in coinage; it is mixed with silver to increase strength, and used in musical instruments [10].

Copper has been known since ancient times and was the first metal mined and used in tools by man, the initial process used to extract copper from its ores, instead of finding pure deposits, lead to the development of metallurgy, and the development of industry [12]. The discovery of Bronze, an alloy of Copper and other metals, usually tin, lead to revolutions in the societies that used them. [14]

[ http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/chemistry/cumining/index.html



[ http://www.mine-engineer.com/mining/open_pit.htm

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_mining

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Froth_flotation

[ http://www.wmrc.uiuc.edu/main_sections/info_services/library_docs/manuals/primmetals/chapter5.htm


[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag

[ www.mtm.kuleuven.ac.be/Education/NonMatIrCourses/Mat/5-b%20copper.doc

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper

[ http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/chemistry/copper/copch0pg5.html

[12] http://www.rameria.com/inglese/history.html

[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze

[14] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronze_Age

Chemistry The Producrion of Meterials HSC 2007

HSC Chemistry Research Assignment Term 4 2006

The Production of Materials Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell

The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell, known commonly as the Hydrogen Fuel Cell are a class of electrochemical energy conversion devices called fuel cells. [1] Fuel Cells are similar to batteries in that chemical energy potential energy is directly converted to electrical energy through electrochemical reactions.[2] Fuel cells are different in that the reactants used to produce the current are continuously replenished unlike a battery in which the reactants are finite and the production of current stops once the reactants are exhausted. [1] There are many variations in the Hydrogen fuel cell, using different fuels but all rely on the basic reaction of hydrogen combining with oxygen to produce water and an electrical current in the process. The most basic of these the, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) or Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM) [1] [4] [8] uses Platinum bonded onto an electrode to catalyse hydrogen into H+ ions and electrons which travel across the proton exchange membrane and the anode respectively to join back together at the cathode with oxygen gas to produce water, the flow of electrons from the Anode to the cathode is utilised as a source of electricity for many applications. [3] [5]


The Hydrogen Fuel Cell is made up of four main components: the Polymer electrolyte membrane, the Anode and Cathode which act as electrodes of the electrons and the flow plates. [6b] [7] [8] Each of these components are sandwiched together to create a single cell fuel cell. (see Diagram 1)

The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane/ Proton Exchange Membrane: The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane or the Proton Exchange Membrane formes the core of the fuel cell along with the Anode and Cathode electrode catalysts. The PEM is made up of a thin solid polymer, plastic, that functions as an electrolyte, which is a substance that contains disassociated atoms, called ions [10] making the polymer electrically conductive. [6b] [7] [8] [9]

Diagram 1: A Simple Hydrogen Fuel Cell. [6]

The PEM is typically 50 to 178 microns thick [9] or no thicker than 2-7 sheets of paper, Like thick plastic wrap. [6b] [9] It is Important for the PEM to only conduct positively charged hydrogen ions or protons to enable the cell to function. The movement of the positively charged ions from the anode to the cathode is important as it completes the circuit in the fuel cell enabling a current to flow. [6b] [7] [8] [9]

Anode/Catalyst: The anode is the negatively charged electrode at which the oxidation (loss of electrons) half of the reaction takes place. The anode is made up of platinum coated carbon beads which act as a catalyst for the oxidation half reaction. At the anode gaseous hydrogen is oxidised into positively charged hydrogen ions (protons) which pass through the PEM into the cathode and electrons which pass through the anode into an external circuit to be utilised and back to the cathode. [6b] [7] [8] [9]

Cathode/Catalyst: The cathode like the anode is comprised of carbon particles coated in the platinum catalyst. On this side of the PEM electrons from the external circuit travel along and combine with gaseous Oxygen, and the protons from the PEM in a reduction half reaction to produce water and heat, using the platinum to catalyse the reaction. [6b] [7] [8] [9]

Flow Plates and Backing hardware: The flow plates, backing layers and current collectors are attached on either side of the anode and cathode and provide an electrical path for the electrons to take and allow the gaseous fuels hydrogen and oxygen to diffuse through to reach all regions of the anode and cathode to maximise efficiency, and to allow waste water to drip away. Therefore the backing layers are designed to be porous and conductive to fulfil these functions. The Flow plates are on the outer most regions of the backing layers, Diagram 2: A Complete Hydrogen cell [9]

their function is similar to the backing layers except that they are usually made out of metal or graphite, they are gas impervious to contain the gaseous fuels. The Flow plates are usually where the fuel cell is attached to the external circuit. (see Diagram 2) [6b] [7] [9]

Chemistry of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Its Function

The Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell uses gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen to produce water and electricity. [1] [3] It uses the chemical energy of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen to produce electrical energy directly rather then thermal energy from the combustion of the two meterials which makes the hydrogen cell potentially more efficient than combustion engines. They make use of set of chemical reactions called Oxidation and Reduction Reactions or REDOX reactions [11] which take place in the core of the hydrogen fuel cell: the PEM, the anode and cathode. In the hydrogen fuel cell two separate reactions take place, one at the anode, and oxidation reaction, and one at the cathode, a reduction reaction, [5] which produces the electrons used in the external circuit and the water as a waste product. At the Anode: Gaseous Hydrogen from a source is allowed to diffuse through the backing layers until it reaches the catalyst layer in the anode. At the anode, the hydrogen gas (H2) is oxidised by the platinum (Pt) coated carbon into H+ ions (a proton) and electrons (e-) since a molecule of hydrogen gas has two atoms of hydrogen 2H+ ions are made, and 2e- electrons are made. To balance the reaction at the cathode 2 molecules of hydrogen are needed, so 4 atoms of hydrogen are oxidised. [1] [5] [6c] [8] [9] 2H2 => 4H+ + 4e-

In the PEM: The proton exchange membrane allows the hydrogen ions to pass through, while blocking the passage of the electrons. The electrons travel through the backing layers, to the flow plate and through the external circuit and back through to the cathode. [5] [6c] [8] [9]

At The Cathode: From the flow plates and backing layers a steady stream of gaseous oxygen molecules (O2) from the atmosphere flows. Also electrons that had come through the external circuit come through the backing layers. When they both meet at the cathode along with the H+ ions from the PEM the platinum (Pt) reduces the Oxygen molecules (O2), splitting them in to single oxygen atoms and combining them with 2H+ ions and 2e- electrons,

Since there are 2 oxygen atoms in a Oxygen molecule, 4 protons and 4 electrons are needed to balance the equation, to produce 2 molecules of water (2H2O). [5] [6c] [8] [9]

O2 + 4H+ + 4e- => 2H2O

The net reaction in the hydrogen fuel cell is to combine 4 hydrogen atoms from a source with 2 atoms of oxygen from the atmosphere. The net reaction is: [8] [9]

2H2 + O2 => 2H2O

The net reaction that occurs in the Hydrogen Fuel Cell covers up the important aspect that relates to its function, the production of electrons. The current of electrons is used to power electrical devices that are used in society today.[1] [6d] [8] [9]

Applications and Uses of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Future Directions

The Hydrogen Fuel Cell is a promising new technology that is slowly finding new uses and applications. Hydrogen Fuel cells are finding many applications since it Hydrogen fuel cells are compact, light weight, have no moving parts so they are reliable and quiet, and only produce water as its waste and are more efficient than other sources of energy [14a]. [1] [6d] [8] [9] [14]

Transportation: Hydrogen Fuel cells have been used in transportation due to being lighter more compact and more environmentally friendly and also more efficiently [8] than other sources of energy. A gasoline engine to power a car is usually less than 20% efficient [14a] in converting the gasoline chemical energy into kinetic energy under driving conditions, while a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle has an efficiency of 40 to 60% when using electric motors. [14a] [12]

The Space shuttle has been using fuel cells for decades [6d] [13] to provide the space shuttles electrical energy, excess heat from the fuel cells is used to vaporise the fuel before it reaches the fuel cell and recycles the water waste for drinking as other uses. [13]

Stationary Power: Hydrogen Fuel cells can be used for bse load power plants, [1] Energy storage (at large power stations and locally) to store excess energy produced [9], backup power supplies, since they are small and compact [6d] and as power sources to remote areas.

[16] [6d] that would be stored in small cartridges, eliminating the need to plug into the mains power and enabling batteries to be smaller reducing portable gadgets weight and extending their useable time. [16]

Cost Considerations

Currently the main barrier to larger fuel cell uptake in society and industry relates to the high costs associated infrastructure required to use Hydrogen and Hydrogen fuel cells in equipment [14] [17], and the high cost of producing hydrogen and the fuel cell itself [17]. Hydrogen has a low energy to volume ratio compared to current fuels such as gasoline [14] [17] , which means that larger volumes of hydrogen are required to supply the same amount of energy than a equivalent volume of gasoline.

Infrastructure, Transportation and Storage: The low energy to volume ratio means that Storing and transporting hydrogen is more expensive then storing or transporting other fuels[14] [17]. Since hydrogen and hydrogen fuel cells are not in wide spread use there is no infrastructure such as pipelines and tanks for road transport, both which has high initial costs. [14] [17] The small size of the hydrogen molecule means that ensuring that the hydrogen is contained and does not leak also becomes an issue [14]

Cost of Fuel Cells: Current fuel cells are expensive and fragile. [17] Current Hydrogen Fuel cells rely on the expensive Platinum catalyst, which adds to the cost of the fuel cell. [9]

Currently Hydrogen fuel cells have the potential to be more cost effective, Costs are likely to go down as the technology is researched more and is adopted more into society once infrastructure is put into place.

Environmental Factors

The Hydrogen Fuel Cell is being promoted as a means of reducing pollution and green house gasses. Current Fuels such as gasoline/oil, coal and gas contribute to the greenhouse effect since their combustion products include: Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Methane and other unburnt hydrocarbons and water vapour. [9] [9] [18] Modern Societies reliance on Fossil fuels has effected the environment negatively causing global climate change. [9] [18] 25% of all Human green house gas emissions come from transportation that uses fossil fuels [9] Introducing Hydrogen Fuel cells instead of using fossil fuels if generated from renewable resources, will increase fuel efficiency and since the only product of a hydrogen fuel cell is water, the amount of greenhouse gas produced by humans will be reduced by 50% [9]. Using Fuel cells with renewable energy resources may nearly eliminate greenhouse has emissions and slow down global warming. [9] [18]

One Potentially unexplored avenue of environmental effect is that of leaked Hydrogen from tanks and pipelines into the upper atmosphere. Escaped hydrogen may build up the upper atmosphere increasing global warming by aiding other chemicals in the atmosphere or accumulate in the poles. [19] [20]


[1] Wikipedia: Fuel Cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_cell [2] Wikipedia: Battery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery [3] Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies: Fuel Cells Basics


[4] Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies: Types of Fuel Cells http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_types.html [5] Wikipedia: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proton_exchange_membrane_fuel_cell [6] Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies o [6a] Introduction http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/animation/swfs/intro.html o [6b] Components http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/animation/mod1.html o [6c] Chemical Process http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/animation/mod2.html o [6d] Applications http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/animation/mod3.html

[7] Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies: Parts of a Fuel Cell http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/fuelcells/fc_parts.html [8] How Stuff Works: How Fuel Cells Work http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.htm [ http://education.lanl.gov/resources/fuelcells/fuelcells.pdf [10] Wikipedia: Electrolyte http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolyte [11] Wikipedia: Redox http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Redox [12] Hydrogen fuel cells: What Is A Fuel Cell? http://www.bullnet.co.uk/shops/test/hydrogen.htm [13] Nova: Fuelling the 21st century http://www.science.org.au/nova/023/023box01.htm [14] [a-h] DOE Hydrogen Program Fact Sheets http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/education/abcs.html [15] Wikipedia: Image:Toyota FCHV.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Toyota_FCHV.jpg [16] Tiny Fuel Cell May Power Portable Electronics http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/08/0830_050830_minifuelcell.html [17] Wikipedia: Hydrogen Vehicle http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_vehicle#Hydrogen_fuel_cell_difficulties [18] Wikipedia: Greenhouse effect http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect [19] Does Hydrogen Fuel Pose Environmental Problems? http://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/hydrogen/environment.html [20] Environmental Impact of H2 from Hydrogen Fuel Cell on the Stratosphere http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A72C0192T


Waves Prelim 2006


Physics Research Assignment Year 11 2006

Question 1

Question 1 Bibliography


(You can refer to the Originals at the end of this document)

 Question 2

  Where force is F, the gravitational constant G, The masses M1 and M2  and the distance between the masses r.

It means: the gravitational forces exerted by two masses are related by the product of the two masses, and the inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two. If two objects of the same mass were paced near each other in space, they would exert more force upon each other if they were closer than if they were father away. If two objects were placed the same distance from each other in space, two objects of a higher mass would exert more force upon each other than of two objects of a lower mass were places the same distance apart. It is used in Astronomy as this law describes how celestial objects orbit each other in the heavens.

In Electrostatics, another inverse square law is Coulomb's law which is stated as: "The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two point charges is directly proportional to the magnitudes of each charge and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges."

 Where force is F, k is the Coulomb force constant, the charge in the two bodies q1 and q2  and the distance between the charged particles is r.

Question 2 Bibliography







Question 3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Region Energy Wavelength Frequency Atmospheric Penetration Gamma Rays 1-100Mev 1-10Gev <10-12 m 1020-1024hz 50-25km above the ground X Rays 1-100kev 1 nm-1 pm 1017-1020hz 150-50km above the ground

Microwaves 10-5 - 0.01ev 1 mm-25 um (10-0.01cm) 3x1011-1013hz 50-2km above the ground Radio waves < 10-5ev > 10cm >1 mm Reaches ground level

Question 3 Bibliography



http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/dir-013/_1941.htm http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/images/frqcharc.gif

Problem Solving Component

Physics Gravity/projectile Motion HSC 2007


2 Unit Physics Higher School Certificate Course 2007 Research Assignment

Written Component A)


Method: 1. Attach the small mass (pendulum bob) to the length of string. 2. Attach the other end of the string to the retort stand and clamp, let the pendulum dangle. 3. Using the measuring tape or ruler measure the length of the string (l) from the top of the mass to where it is attached to the mass. 4. Gently lift the bob a moderate distance from its rest position, release the bob and simultaneously start the stopwatch to begin timing. 5. Measure the length of 10 periods (a period is one oscillation back and fourth) stopping the stopwatch at the 10th period. 6. Divide the time by ten to get the period (T). 7. Repeat the experiment for different lengths of string, from 0.1 to 1 m, recording their periods and lengths. 8. With the recorded data construct a graph with the period squared (T2) on the y-axis against the Length (l) on the x-axis

10. Alternatively With the recoded data you can substitute the values in the equation:

The independent variable in this experiment is the length of the sting, as it is the variable changed in the experiment. The dependent variable in this experiment is the period of oscillation of the pendulum bob, as it is dependent on the length of the string.

Two aspects that do not effect on the results of the experiment is the Mass of the pendulum bob and the initial height the pendulum was dropped from.


Method: 1. Suspend a pulley on a retort stand and thread the string through 2. Attach one end to a large mass (ML) and the other onto a smaller mass (MS) ensuring that ML > MS

5. Time the fall of ML as it is released to when it hits the ground. 6. Repeat the experiment with differing masses. 7. Calculate the Acceleration of the large mass by using the formula:

8. Plot the acceleration (a) against the difference in mass, with the acceleration on the y-axis and the mass difference on the x-axis for each set of results.


Both the Pendulum method and the Atwood Machine use the acceleration due to gravity to obtain results, and both require the use of a stopwatch to measure the time and a ruler or tape measure to measure the length. In both the Atwood machine and Pendulum method the results would be affected by the mass of the pulleys and strings in addition to the friction with the air and with the Atwood Machine friction between the cable and pulley.


Michelson designed a device called an interferometer that uses a half silvered mirror that would split a beam of light into two beams that travel at right angles to each other in long arms. The two beams are reflected by mirrors at the ends of each arm back to the half silvered mirror creating interference patterns, which would be effected by Earths motion through the aether.

Differences in the patterns would be due to the flow of the aether, if the arm was orientated in the same direction of the aether, the light would travel faster in that arm then in the other and affect the interference pattern.

Michelson and Morley measured the speed of light in many directions and returned with a null result, indicating that the speed of the aether relative to Earth was zero and that the Earth is stationary in relation to the universe. This result as well as increasingly sophisticated and accurate interferometers reporting the same result disproved the existence of the aether and enabled Einstein to formulate the theory of Special Relativity.

Problem Solving A) An observer of parcel on the plane would see the parcel recede as the plane continued its course east leaving it behind as it descended in a straight line.

To an observer on the ground facing east the observer would see the parcel descend straight down.












Studies of Religion

The Reformation Speech Hand Out Prelim 2006

me: 25/30 Kieran: 25/30 Julian: 23/30

The Reformation

Causes and Origins

Martin Luther

John Calvin

Differences Between Catholic and Protestant Beliefs Protestant Catholic Justification by faith Both faith and good works The priesthood of all believers The Catholic priesthood is necessary as only priests can perform the sacraments ncessary for spirtual health and correctly interpret the meaning of scripture. The scriptures as the only source of true doctrine Scripture is only one way in which doctrine is revealed Christ's sacrifice happend only once, and no repeat of that sacrifice is necessary. The Eucharist is a mystery in which the sacrifice of Christ is reenacted; the bread and wine become spiritually transformed into the true body and blood of the Lord No heavenly intermediaries are needed to intercede with God. Although the saints and angels should not be worshipped, their intercession is valuable and necessary to helping the Christian to achieve salvation God's foreknowledge and ominipotence mean that everyone is predestined to their fate God's omnipotence does not restrict human will, and each individual is still responsible for earning their own salvation. The Bible only documents two sacraments: baptism and the Lord's Supper (so called to distinguish the Protestant practice from the Catholic Eucharist) There are seven sacraments: baptism, Eucharist (see above), penance (confession/ absolution), confirmation, marriage, holy orders, extreme unction (last rites)

Holland and Scotland.

conduct was something was something that happened in everyday life not monasteries.

The Catholic Churches Response: The Counter Reformation

o The churches interpretation of the Bible is final and that anyone who made their own interpretation is a heretic o Christians need faith and good works for salvation o The Bible and Church Authorities are both equally powerful authorities for guiding Christian life o Indulgences are valid expressions of faith and repentance.

===Studies of Religion Assessment Task Religious Expression in Australia from 1945 to the present.===


Denominational Switching



o http://www.ncls.org.au/default.aspx?sitemapid=131 o http://www.ncls.org.au/default.aspx?sitemapid=133

Pope John XXIII

English Advanced

Critical Study of the Text Much Ado about Nothing Prelim 2006

Rewind 2004

Things change slowly. Even though you think things change quickly,

My life in retrospect must have been pretty boring. Luckily I never had the time to think about being bored and lonely; all of it was spent on reading books and playing on the computer, and of course playing with my sister. In reality though, I was content with my life back then, and only by looking with the eyes of someone older and hopefully wiser that I see things in different ways.

The internet changed all that, some may think the internet cuts people off, and that it prevents social interaction, but I found it linked me to people that were more like me, people who share the same and different outlooks and perspectives on life, and had the same interests as me. Also more importantly, it showed me different ways of seeing things, little bits ok knowledge that change the way you look at things. It made me to get out more and see the world. I wanted to do different things, and seeing things from a new point of view.

Another small change was being introduced to deviantArt and to the world of webcomics, instead of tirelessly and painfully trying to copy my favorite cartoon and Anime characters line for line in my sketch book. The webcomics opened up new worlds of fantasy and adventure in my mind, while deviantArt stirred my creative side. Not long after I created works that I could call my own.

I remember talking with my mum once, about how time seemed to go so slowly and that things take so long to change, I wanted to grow up quickly and be independent. She said that when I was older I would be complaining that time goes so fast and that things change a lot and would change quickly. I agree with her now that, the time does fly, and things seem to change at a faster rate than before, but if look back carefully, you will see the little changes that came, a little bit of knowledge that changed your perspective, which brought you from where you were to where you are now.

Fast Forward 2006

Confronting the Unknown

Year 11 English Advanced Comparative Study of the Text. Slide 2

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The world was in a mist for Rush for Africa, the western nations were all scrambling for land in Africa and other continents to exploit their resources and become rich. Slide 10

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English Creative Writing Task Term 1 2006

The Moon was first thing I gazed at when I got onto the roof, the silvery circle casting its moon beams all over this side of the earth, proclaiming my divine right as a monarch. A cloud crosses the moons face. I look down upon the orchards, full of fruit trees, menacing and rustling in the wind. Crowding like soldiers in ranks restless for battle, their fruits hanging, ready to be hurled at me, waiting to drag me down into the shadows between their roots. But the cloud is blown away and the wind dies down, the moon once again shines its feeble light down declaring once again that I was in power.

Another moon later, and I perch my self on the window sill as my hands feel for the tiles above, smooth and cold. As I climb up again, the wind picks up, blowing into my face and up my bed-clothes, but the call of the moon is great as I hoist myself on to my terracotta domain, my fruit tree minions all assembled, impatient, waiting for tonight orders, from a king amongst the stars.

I ease my self up, I look across the farm to our neighbors land, with only pasture, and a few animals, cows and horses, mainly and a few sheep. I remember going there once, when the sun was high and the moon nowhere to be found, I helped him milk a cow, holding the udder as he squirted the milk in to the steel pail, slowly and carefully. He came by later on and gave us a few jugs. We would never run out of fresh milk again. I look back on to the pastures, but the cows are not there, tired, I climbed back down to the warmth of the bed.

Many moons have passed, and my hair is showing my age. I stare up at the moon, as I always had, but no longer from the terracotta tiles, I stopped climbing up there when I grew too big, no longer the king among the stars, but another in the rank and file, the fruit trees once more menacing and restless in the wind. Clouds cover the moon again, spontaneously I throw open the window, and grip the roof with my wrinkled hands, but the wind howls in laughter. My throne is forever out of reach. I close the window once more, leaving the moon to shine down forever waiting for a new king to head its call.

The Relationship between Looking for Alibrandi and Sky High

In all its unedited glory!

The difference between the text types in Looking for Alibrandi and Sky High means that the authors have to use different techniques to convey their idea of Change. Sky high, a short story cannot go into the same depth as a novel like Looking for Alibrandi can with characterization and character development. In looking for Alibrandi Melina Marchetta is able to follow the lives of multiple characters and she is able to compare and contrast their development against Josie, while in Shy High, Hannah Roberts compares the older against the younger memory of her character.

End of Prelim test Term 3 2006

Overall in the English Exam, I could have done better, I know that I have a developed or developing skills needed in writing narratives, as evidenced in Section 2, (14/20) but would need to improve my expression of the ideas and sentence structure, which reading back on it is confusing.

Something I did well was in Section 3 with choosing a good thesis/theme to return to for the Article, but again I was unable to complete it due to insufficient time.

Power Point Presentation

Question C

  • I got Full marks for this question, but in retrospect I did not understand some images presented in the poem during the test, only after exam, being able to ask the opinions of classmates was I able to understand (as much as one can) the poem more.
  • I picked up on the reminiscent tone of the poem, but I should have started it, which could have made my response stronger.

Question D

  • In Question D the main flaw in my response was that I only discussed the ideas presented within the two texts, and did not put in supporting quotes or references to the two texts to backup what I had argued
  • Also I generalized a bit in the first two paragraphs

Year 11 English Assignment

Assessment Task 2 Critical Response Essay

Journal Entry: Journey into the Unknown

Prelim topic

Marlow my old companion of mine was an old sea fearer one that has been on many adventures, been to new lands, and met many people, exotic things that I, have largely not done, an interesting fellow, one that has an air of wisdom about him in that frame, a frame that was once more adventurous but had some how lost its allure, a weariness had taken ownership of his soul, a weariness mixed with wisdom that is instantly sensed when he speaks.

Kurtz had taken a high seat with the devils of the land that he had come as a god to the savages to be feared, that they did not want Kurtz to leave and neither did Kurtz. Marlow that he had lost all inhibitions that his flight back up the river was flight from having to regain his responsibilities. It had turned out that Kurtz was physically weak and sick, but the natives guarded him with their lives , it was a word and a wave of an arm that enables Marlow and the other agents to live when they finally reached the inner station, that rebels heads adorned the old posts of the palisade.

Journey to the Interior and Blood on the Tracks HSC 2006

The Wind in the Willows and Crossing the Red Sea HSC 2007


How has the Study of the Texts Broadened the Understanding of the World and Myself.

Personal Response

The Study of the texts in the context of journeys has boarded my understanding of the world by enabling me to see into different lives and thoughts of the authors, and their experiences into their characters and stories.

In the Wild

appx 700 word, mini rushed essay on comparing two texts

Journalistic Ethics

Explain how the Issue of Journalistic Ethics is explored in one ORT and the Frontline episode, The Siege.

The portrayal of the Truth and Journalistic ethics are often placed second to the pursuit of ratings and a sensational story. One of the reoccurring themes in the television series Frontline is that of the means in which the fictional frontline crew use in the pursuit of ratings for their current affairs television program. This theme is further explored in The Sydney Morning Herald article from the 19th of May 2007 In a Spin over One pretty baby, in which Farah Faroque analyses the print media and society on the spin and sensationalization utilised in The Daily Telegraph article also about Baby Catherine on the 15th of May 2007 entitled HOW COULD SHE.

King Lear Parramatta Riverside Theatre Reflection

An interesting aspect of this production of the play of King Lear is the absence of the leading male characters of the Duke of Albany and the Duke of Cornwall as well as the suitors of Cordelia, the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy, this lends itself to an possible unintended feminist presentation of the play, possibly brought about by practically, this must have been a conscious choice of the Mark Kilmurry to limit the about of actors crowding what was an already small performance space. The Absence of Albany and Cornwall, silences their voice and their point of view in the play, and in this production of the play, the wives were portrayed as making all the decisions as rulers of their households and making decisions personally without the interference of needing to defer to their husbands, portraying Gonerill and Regan as having the power. Though standing on its own this may seem insignificant, compared to the productions by Miller, Kozintsev and Brook, the power of the two sisters highlighted.

English Listening Task

Frontline: Add Sex and Stir

How does Rob Sitch et al use the episode Add Sex and Stir to support the notion that in the world of media it is the quest for money that has the power rather than the quest for truth.

Rob Sitch and his team use the episode of Frontline to demonstrate the hypocrisy of the Frontline team in presenting Current Affairs on their show in a quest for ratings which leads to money. Using techniques to create a verisimilitude to real life current affairs shows, Rob Sitch et al, uses humour, exaggeration, caricature, ridicule and sarcasm to parody and satirise the often similar practices of actual current affairs show to the responders that it is actually the ratings that matter not the truth. Brian and Emma, the producers of the current affairs show Frontline are part of a complex hierarchy of power that controls and manipulates the rest of the Frontline team, in a conscious effort to gain the top ratings from what they believe to be a simple audience.

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