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Macedonia,

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Infobox Country |native_name = |conventional_long_name = |common_name = |image_flag = |image_coat = |symbol_type = |national_motto = |national_anthem = |royal_anthem = |other_symbol_type = |other_symbol = |image_map = |map_caption = |image_map2 = |map_caption2 = |capital = |latd= |latm= |latNS= |longd= |longm= |longEW= |largest_city = |largest_settlement_type = |official_languages = |regional_languages = |languages_type = |ethnic_groups = |ethnic_groups_year = |demonym = |government_type = |leader_title1 = |leader_name1 = |leader_title2 = |leader_name2 = ... |leader_title5 = |leader_name5 = |sovereignty_type = |sovereignty_note = |established_event1 = |established_date1 = |established_event2 = |established_date2 = ... |established_event9 = |established_date9 = |area_rank = |area_magnitude = |area_km2 = |area_sq_mi = |percent_water = |population_estimate = |population_estimate_rank = |population_estimate_year = |population_census = |population_census_year = |population_density_km2 = |population_density_sq_mi = |population_density_rank = |GDP_PPP = |GDP_PPP_rank = |GDP_PPP_year = |GDP_PPP_per_capita = |GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = |GDP_nominal = |GDP_nominal_rank = |GDP_nominal_year = |GDP_nominal_per_capita = |GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = |Gini = |Gini_rank = |Gini_year = |HDI = |HDI_rank = |HDI_year = |HDI_category = |currency = |currency_code = |time_zone = |utc_offset = |time_zone_DST = |DST_note = |utc_offset_DST = |cctld = |calling_code = |image_map3 = |footnotes = |footnote1 = |footnote2 = ... |footnote7 = The Republic of Macedonia Template:Audio-IPA (Template:LangWithName, transliterated: Republika Makedonija Template:Audio-IPA-nohelp), often referred to as Macedonia, is a landlocked country on the Balkan peninsula in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Serbia and the disputed territory of Kosovo to the north, Albania to the west, Greece to the south, and Bulgaria to the east.

It was admitted to the United Nations in 1993 under the provisional reference the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,<ref>UN Resolutions #817 of April 7 and #845 of June 18 of 1993, see UN resolutions made on 1993</ref><ref>Template:Cite web "By resolution A/RES/47/225 of 8 April 1993, the General Assembly decided to admit as a Member of the United Nations the State being provisionally referred to for all purposes within the United Nations as "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" pending settlement of the difference that had arisen over its name."</ref> commonly abbreviated to FYROM,<ref> Bonk, M. R., Carlton R. A. (editors) (1997), International Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, 4th Edition, Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: Gale Research, LCCCN 85-642206, ISBN 0-8103-7437-4, ISSN 0743-0523, Volume 1, pg. 516 and Bonk, M. R (Project Editor) (2003), International Acronyms, Initialisms & Abbreviations Dictionary, 32nd Edition, USA: Gale-Thompson Group, Volume 1, pg. 1789, ISBN 0-7876-4109-X (Part 2 D-I only)</ref><ref>Alongside the official long-form reference, the "FYROM" acronym is frequently used by international organizations such as the UN, the EU, the OSCE, the EBU, the IMF, the World Bank, WTO and NATO (All NATO documents referring to FYROM have to be accompanied by a footnote text 'Turkey recognises the Republic of Macedonia with its constitutional name')</ref> pending resolution of a naming dispute with Greece.<ref name="UN">United Nations Resolution 225 (1993)</ref> Many other international institutions and countries have recognised the country under the same reference, although an overall majority of countries recognise it under its constitutional name.<ref>See lists at Macedonia naming dispute</ref>

The Republic of Macedonia lies in the northwestern third of the wider geographical region of Macedonia, with about 40% of the region's population. The capital is Skopje, with 506,926 inhabitants according to a 2004 census, and there are a number of smaller cities, notably Bitola, Kumanovo, Prilep, Tetovo, Ohrid, Veles, Štip, Kočani, Gostivar and Strumica. It has more than 50 lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2,000 meters (6,550 ft).

The country is a member of the UN and the Council of Europe and a member of La Francophonie, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Since December 2005 it is also a candidate for joining the European Union and has applied for NATO membership.

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The lands governed by the Republic of Macedonia were previously the southernmost part of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. Its current borders were fixed shortly after the Balkan Wars. In 1944, the Anti-Fascist Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia declared the "People's Republic of Macedonia" as a separate nation within federal Yugoslavia.

Ancient history of the region

The first recorded states on the territory of today's Republic of Macedonia was the kingdom of Paionia, which covered the northern and eastern regions of the Axius River valley.The Paeonians are also famous because they took part in the Trojan war on the side of the Troy, also Homer (Iliad, ii. 848) speaks of Paeonians from the Axius fighting on the side of their Trojan ferinds. And the kingdom of Macedon which occupied the Lyncestis and Pelagonia regions.<ref>Encyclopaedia Britannica — Paeonia. [1]</ref> Philip II of Macedon took over the southernmost regions of Paeonia in 336 BC and founded the city of Heraclea Lyncestis, in what is now Bitola.<ref>Macedonian Center for Archaeological Research. The Ancient Kingdom of Macedonia in the Republic of Macedonia. [2]</ref> Philip's son Alexander the Great conquered the remainder of Paeonia and incorporated it in his empire. Subsequently the territory was conquered by Rome, and the region became part of two Roman provinces. The greater part was within Macedonia Salutaris, but the northern border regions, inhabited by the Dardani, became a part of Moesia Superior.<ref> Encyclopaedia Britannica — Scopje. [3]</ref> By 400 AD the Paeonians had lost their identity, and Paeonia was merely a geographic term within the Macedonian region.

Medieval period

Purported presence of Slavic tribes in c. 700 AD.

During the 580s, Byzantine literature attests to the Slavs raiding Byzantine territories in the region of Macedonia. The Slavic peoples that settled in the region of Macedonia accepted Christianity as their own religion around the 9th century, during the reign of prince Boris I of Bulgaria, and these lands became part of the Bulgarian Empire.

In 1014, Emperor Basil II finally defeated the armies of Tsar Samuil and by 1018 the Byzantines restored control over Macedonia (and all of the Balkans) for the first time since the 600s. However, by the late 12th century, inevitable Byzantine decline saw the region become contested by various political entities, including a brief Norman occupation in the 1080s. In the early 13th century, a revived Bulgarian Empire gained control of the region. Plagued by political difficulties the empire did not last and the wider geographical Macedonia region fell once again under Byzantine control. In the 14th century, it became part of the Serbian Empire, who saw themselves as liberators of their Slavic kin from Byzantine despotism. Skopje became the capital of Tsar Stefan Dusan's empire.

However, with Dusan's death, a weak successor and power struggles between nobles divided the Balkans once again. This coincided with the entry of the Ottoman Turks into Europe. With no major Balkan power left to defend Christianity, the entire Balkans fell to Turkish rule — which would remain so for five centuries.

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