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Direct: Xenodiagnosis, Thick/Thin Smear <br>
 
Direct: Xenodiagnosis, Thick/Thin Smear <br>
 
Indirect: Serology (ELISA) , DNA, PCR/DNA
 
Indirect: Serology (ELISA) , DNA, PCR/DNA
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====Thin Smear====
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====Thick Smear====
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===Treatment===
 
===Treatment===
 
Nifurtimox or Benzimadazole <br>
 
Nifurtimox or Benzimadazole <br>

Revision as of 01:58, 26 February 2008

Classification

Subkingdom Protozoa - unicellular organisms that are considered eukaryotic. Move by gliding/pseudopodia, flagella or cilia. Food vacuoles are present. Sometimes the feeding stage is known as trophozoite.
Phylum Sarcomastigophora - Generally the contain a single nucleus, and reproduce by binary fission. Locomotion by pseudopodia or flagella.
Subphylum Mastigophora - Have one or more flagella
Family Trypanosomatidae - Have one or two flagella and a kinetoplast
Genus Trypanosoma


Trypanosoma Cruzi

Disease Name

Chagas' Disease

Location

Central and South America, Southern USA, Trinidad

Transmission

Reduviid/Triatomid/Kissing/Cone Bugs Kissing bug takes a blood meal on host. Defecates on host. The trophomastigotes in the feces then enter mucus membranes or wounds.
Night Vector
Can be vertically transmitted

Hosts

Humans, Dogs, Cats, Armadillos, possums, rodents

Morphology

Trypomastigotes in the blood Amastigotes in Muscle or Nerve cells (usually in the myocardium or myenteric plexus)

Signs/Symptoms

Acute Stage Signs and Symptoms

Fever
Progressive Anemia
Hepatosplenomegaly
EKG Abnormalities
Lymphadenopathy
Edema
CNS involvement
Degeneration of parasitized tissue

Intermediate Stage Signs and Symptoms

Asymptomatic

Chronic Stage Signs and Symptoms

30% of cases

Fever
Constipation
Abdominal Distension
EKG Abnormalities
Destruction of Myocardial Tissue
Cardiomegaly
Apical Aneurysm
Destruction of the Myenteric Plexus

Diagnosis

Finding parasites in the blood.
Direct: Xenodiagnosis, Thick/Thin Smear
Indirect: Serology (ELISA) , DNA, PCR/DNA

Thin Smear

Thick Smear

Treatment

Nifurtimox or Benzimadazole
This has no effect on the amastigote stage

Trypanosoma Rangeli

This is Apathogenic.

Location

Central and South America, Trinidad

Hosts

Humans, Monkeys, Raccoons, Dogs, Cats, Armadillos, possums, rodents

Transmission

Reduviid/Triatomid/Kissing/Cone Bugs (same as T.cruzi) Kissing bug takes a blood meal on host. Defecates on host. The trophomastigotes in the feces then enter mucus membranes or wounds.
Night Vector
Can be vertically transmitted

Morphology

Trypomastigote form looks exactly like Tb Ga_mbiense and T.b. rhodesiense

Diagnosis

Finding parasites in the blood.
Direct: Xenodiagnosis, Thick/Thin Smear
Indirect: Serology (ELISA) , DNA, PCR/DNA

Treatment

Nifurtimox or Benzimadazole

Trypanosoma brucei Rhodesiense

Disease Name

Acute Sleeping Sickness

Location

Central and East Africa

Transmission

Tsetse fly
Blood Transfusions
Day Vector

Hosts

Humans, Antelope, Cattle

Morphology

Trypomastigotes in the blood No Amastigotes stage Trypomastigotes identical in T.b.ga_mbiense

Signs/Symptoms

Local lesion caused by bite known as a Chancre
Intermittent Fever
Anemia
Invasion of the brain and progressive meningoencephalitis (will lead to coma and death)

Diagnosis

Travel History
Enlarged Cervical Lymph Nodes (Winterbottom's sign)


Direct Methods- Thin/Thick Blood Smears, Aspirated gland juice, CSF, PCR/DNA
Indirect Methods - Serology (ELISA)

Treatment

Suramin (outside the CNS) additionally give Melarsoprol (CNS) if brain infiltration is suspected.

Control

Use Biconical Traps to trap tsetse fly. They apparently are attracted to the color blue.

Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense

Disease Name

Chronic Sleeping Sickness

Location

South and West Africa

Transmission

Tsetse fly
Blood Transfusions
Day Vector

Hosts

Humans, Antelope, Cattle

Morphology

Trypomastigotes in the blood No Amastigotes stage Trypomastigotes identical in T.b. rhodesiense

Signs/Symptoms

Local lesion caused by bite known as a Chancre
Intermittent Fever
Anemia
Invasion of the brain and progressive meningoencephalitis (will lead to coma and death)

Diagnosis

Travel History
Enlarged Cervical Lymph Nodes (Winterbottom's sign)


Direct Methods- Thin/Thick Blood Smears, Aspirated gland juice, CSF, PCR/DNA
Indirect Methods - Serology (ELISA)

Treatment

Suramin (outside the CNS) additionally give Melarsoprol (CNS) if brain infiltration is suspected.

Control

Use Biconical Traps to trap tsetse fly. They apparently are attracted to the color blue.

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